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Remember Me? Advanced Search. Results 1 to 5 of 5. Thread: nonylphenol and epoxy. Thread Tools Show Printable Version.
I have used over gallons of epoxy on my boatbuilding project so far. The brand I am using, I have recently discovered, has nonylphenol added to the hardeners, quite a bit it seems. I have checked other brands and some have it and some make a point of saying that they don't use it. There is even information that nonylphenol makes a weaker epoxy not to mention the possible health effects.
Nonylphenol in addition to other effects is an endocrine disrupter, it mimics hormones usually estrogen. I haven't noticed that I am developing larger breasts but I am concerned about possible effects and thought I would share this information. My project is close to the end of major epoxy use so I probably won't switch but if I had it to do over I might think about alternatives. Hey Fritz, How about sharing some more info? Which brand has 'quite a bit' and which brand has none?
Let's have the dirt! Join Date Mar Posts Nonyl phenol does not necessarily make a weaker epoxy, and in certain formulations can actually give a stronger product. I have seen nonyl phenol used in many products, especially decoupage resins, and there are no product-traceable consumer-health issues outside of the normal level of consumers having health problems.
It is not a good idea to get it all over your bare skin, nor to breathe the fumes of epoxy on hot surfaces, such as heated by the sun when one is slathering on large quantities over large areas. The best thing is to use a mask with organic vapor filter cartridges and work where fresh air, likely from fans, carries any sort of molecules away from you.
It is called using good industrial hygiene. Nonylphenol or nonylphenol ethoxylate? I personally don't put much truck in the belief the nonylphenol ethoxylates NPEs are that bad.
The endocrine disruptor theory is just that a theory, and not well understood one at that. The effects are chronic in any case with no acute reactions. IMO most of the bad press around them is hysteria, pure and simple. I'd suggest reveiwing the MSDS for whatever your using and follow the safe handling recommendations therein.
But this may be a better subject for Misc, however.Click here - YouTube video. EMAIL Nonyl Phenol is a common chemical additive in almost all epoxies. It has both good and bad properties. Your Host and Tour Guide:. We go the extra mile for your respect and support.
Properties of Epoxies without Nonyl Phenol:. Epoxy Only Web Google Search. You have a legal right to see the MSDS document. Epoxies offered by Progressive Epoxy Polymers, Inc.
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Premium No Blush tm Marine epoxy non hazmat to ship - can be air shipped worldwide - and cycloaliphatic besides! Industrial Floor Epoxy tm - solvent free professional - commercial grade floor epoxy. Now you can too! We are very pleased with the results. None of us had any particular experience with this kind of application, but we followed the instructions, had a fairly cool morning to do the work, and managed to complete the application in about 90 minutes, dividing the work and mixing epoxy in three sections.
I would recommend this material to friends looking to do similar work. Thank you for your assistance, the all-purpose sand was quite adequate for our needs.
Amine Blushing and Blooming of Epoxy Binder Systems in Protective Coatings
Then call us to talk about how these superior. Progressive Epoxy Polymers, Inc. Our regular 1. Cycloaliphatic epoxies. Epoxy adducts. This is an Information Page green background. HELP Page. View our Progressive Epoxy Products, Inc. Contact Page. You won't find these products, or products like it, in a general purpose, mass market, consumer, DIY, box store or flashy marketing company website. BUY online simple store. BUY online primary store. Big Floor Project? Nonyl phenol additives.Blooming, or leaching, is somewhat different from blushing.
Blooming occurs when the amount of condensate causes water-soluble compounds to migrate from the body of the coating to the coating surface. When the moisture evaporates, the leached components will appear on the surface as sticky deposits.
Severe blush or bloom will also cause significant surface irregularities, and these defects are serious enough to cause additional light scattering, resulting in an even more whitened appearance. They affect the coating performance, as they can result in poor gloss retention, discoloration over time yellowingpoor overcoatability and intercoat adhesion. The most important of these effects is the reduced overcoatability, i. In the case of the final layer topcoatthe mechanical and chemical properties are altered and the visual appearance is worse.
A similar phenomenon to the surface effects described above can occur at the coating-substrate interface. If moisture containing dissolved carbon dioxide diffuses out of a porous substrate, e. The incomplete cure affects the final adhesion, which can explain the occasional delamination of epoxy flooring compounds. Blushing and Blooming Causes Blushing, and in some cases, blooming are chemical reactions.
Low-molecular-weight primary amines are typically hygroscopic and tend to react with atmospheric carbon dioxide and moisture to form an ammonium carbamate according to the following simplified equation.
The greasy layers that can appear on some epoxy binder systems are largely the salts of ammonium bi- carbonate. Depending on the type and formulation of the binder system, amine compounds on the surface combine to varying degrees with CO2 carbon dioxide and water in humid air to form hydrates of amine carbonate. The net result of the above side reactions is that amine active hydrogen compounds, which were intended to react with the epoxide compounds, are being consumed. As a consequence, not all epoxide groups react with the curing agent, the stoichiometry is compromised and the net result is under curing.
There are several factors that play a role in the appearance of blush or bloom. However, two major factors influencing the formation of carbamate or carbonate are the humidity and the reaction rate of the amine with carbon dioxide relative to the epoxy-amine reaction rate. Humidity Condensation The humidity in the air changes continuously and can vary from hour to hour, even within relatively small areas such as within one warehouse.
If the substrate temperature falls below the dew point, moisture in the air will condense on the substrate.Production of Epoxy Resins: An Investment Opportunity.
Upon coating application, air from the spray gun and solvent evaporation can lower the surface temperature of the coating. This effect is accentuated when very fast-drying solvents or an unbalanced solvent mixture is used. The condensed moisture will cause the blushing reaction with the amine compounds. An exception to this is offered by coatings that are specifically designed to be "moisture tolerant".Nonylphenol gives the formulation strength with flexibility and resistance to weathering with a high gloss appearance.
M-xylylenediamine prevents yellowing of the clear coating. The formulation is useful as a clear coating to bind aggregate colored pebbles or shell to a cement surface to form a decorative coating.
The formulation is distinguished by its clear, non-yellowing appearance. This invention relates to curable epoxy resin systems. More particularly it relates to clear, non-yellowing epoxy resin formulations which cure to bind aggregate such as decorative pebbles to a surface.
Epoxy resins constitute a broad class of polymeric materials having a wide range of physical characteristics. The resins are characterized by epoxide groups which are cured by reaction with certain catalysts or curing agents to provide cured epoxy resin compositions with certain desirable properties.
One such class of curing agents is the anydrides. Another is the amines. It it known however that anhydrides and amines form clear coatings which yellow and deteriorate with time in the presence of sunlight.
The problem of yellowing has been compensated for by the inclusion of UV absorbers or light stabilizers into the epoxy resin formulation. These additive materials are expensive which has prevented their use to cover large surfaces such as patios and driveways of residential houses. The problem has also been compensated for by using epoxy binders only on dark colored materials where the effect of yellowing is less detrimental to the appearance of the surface.
There is a need in the art for an inexpensive clear epoxy resin formulation for binding colored aggregate, particularly light colored materials, used outdoors and on surfaces exposed to sunlight which will not significantly yellow with time.
The present invention is a decorative aggregate binder formulation comprising aggregate, a polyepoxide and a stoichiometric amount of a novel curative. The polyepoxide is a vicinal polyepoxide having an average of at least 1. The invention is particularly useful for binding an aggregate such as colored pebbles to an outdoor patio, poolside deck or driveway in a decorative, non-yellowing coating. Generally the vicinal polyepoxide containing compositions which may be cured with the products of the invention are organic materials having an average of at least 1.
These polyepoxide materials can be monomeric or polymeric, saturated or unsaturated, aliphatic, cycloaliphatic, aromatic or heterocyclic, and may be substituted if desired with other substituents besides the epoxy groups, e.
Preferred polyepoxides are those of glycidyl ethers prepared by epoxidizing the corresponding allyl ethers or reacting, by known procedures, a molar excess of epichlorohydrin and an aromatic polyhydroxy compound, i.Amines and amine derivatives are the most diverse group of epoxy curing agents.
The fully polymerized epoxy resins exhibit a very wide range of thermal and mechanical properties. Though other classes of compounds e. This paper provides an overview of the wide variety of amine hardeners, including several recent developments that can expand the capabilities of epoxy formulators into new applications.
Amine compounds were among the earliest reactants used with epoxy resins to produce useful products. As epoxy resins became more widely available following their development and commercialization in the late s and mids, utilization of an ever-wider variety of amine compounds ensued.
Because most amines are reactive at room temperature with epoxy resins, such formulations are typically provided as two separate parts or "sides"which are mixed just prior to application. Though a variety of epoxy resin products are commercially available, liquid resins based on the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A also termed DGEBA or BADGE type resins have the widest use and availability due to their relatively low price, which is partially gained from economies of scale.
Because of this, the epoxy portion of epoxy formulations often remains relatively fixed, and most variations in processing and performance are obtained by making changes to the hardener side of the formulation. The wide variety of commercially available amine compounds and decades of study and formulation have helped to make this group of hardeners the most versatile and widely used of any epoxy reactants.
As mentioned previously, the choice of epoxy resin can be used advantageously to affect some processing, thermal and mechanical properties, but the wide diversity of amine curing agents typically allows the greatest latitude in creating formulations to fit a wide variety of application needs.
The three main use criteria for creating or choosing an amine hardener or blend for an epoxy formulation are in no particular order : cost, processing requirements and performance requirements.
These will be addressed in sequence. When choosing between hardeners that have nominally similar processing and performance characteristics, one should not simply go by price alone, but rather, do a calculation, taking into account the cost per pound or perhaps, unit volume of the final, cured material. A similar argument would apply to other, non-amine hardeners.
As a general rule, use of a stoichiometric ratio of amine hydrogen to epoxide groups will, when fully reacted, ensure maximum stability of the product. Such a stoichiometry may not, however, always provide the most desirable processing characteristics or combination of particular properties. For some formulations, being either off-stoichiometry i. In these instances, other properties, less important for a given application, may be sacrificed.
Resistance to solvents or moisture may also be decreased. Sometimes the existence of off-stoichiometric formulations is inadvertent, having been caused by the false assumption that formulations based on parts by weight are interchangeable with those based on parts by volume.
Switching from parts by weight to parts by volume should not be done without recalculating the component percentages because the densities of most amine hardeners around 0. Because the amine-epoxy reaction is exothermic, larger masses of material e. As a result, particularly for the more reactive amine hardeners, application must occur before the end of an ever-shortening pot-life, and the thickness of such applications such as castings or molded composite parts must be limited to that which can withstand the resulting temperature rise.
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Unsupported Browser. Accept Deny. Home Surfactants, Emulsifiers and Polyglycols.The present invention is related to epoxy thermoset formulations or compositions. More particularly, the present invention is related to plasticizers for epoxy thermoset formulations. Benzyl alcohol BA and nonylphenol NP have long been used as plasticizers in epoxy thermoset formulations. They are commonly added to amine hardeners to lower the viscosity and increase the reactivity of the thermoset formulations.
The addition of plasticizers like nonylphenol and benzyl alcohol plays an important role in ambient cure applications by lowering the glass transition Tg temperatures of thermoset formulations, reduce viscosity, and accelerate the curing process thereby making them more suitable for ambient cure applications.
Volatile organic compounds VOCsare emitted as gases from industrial and consumer coatings products. Both industry and government standards strive to reduce environmental and human exposure to these harmful compounds. In the United States, the presence of benzyl alcohol in epoxy formulations also contributes to VOC by EPA Method 24 Determination of volatile matter content, water content, density, volume solids, and weight solids of surface coatings.
Nonylphenol NP is considered to be an endocrine disruptor due to its ability to mimic estrogen. In Europe, NP is labeled with R62 classification possible risk of impaired fertility and R63 possible risk of harm to the unborn child.
Therefore, there is a need for next generation of hardeners formulated without benzyl alcohol or nonylphenol. One broad aspect of the present invention is a hardener composition comprising, consisting of, or consisting essentially of: a an amine component; and b a glycol ether component.
The glycol ether component comprises i from 10 weight percent to 70 weight percent alkylene glycol phenyl ether; ii from 25 weight percent to 80 weight percent dialkylene glycol phenyl ether; and iii from 5 weight percent to 20 weight percent trialkylene glycol phenyl ether, based on the total weight of the glycol ether component. In another embodiment of the present invention, there is disclosed an epoxy thermoset composition comprising, consisting of or consisting essentially of a an epoxy resin; b an amine component, c the above-described glycol ether component; and d a catalyst.
Any suitable aromatic epoxy resin such as a mono- di- tri- poly- glycidyl ether of bisphenol A or a mono- di- tri- poly- glycidyl ether of bisphenol F can be used in the thermoset composition. Examples of epoxy resins include, but are not limited to liquid epoxy resins LER such as for example D. The epoxy resin can also be a epoxy resin blend comprising i an epoxy resin such as D.
Examples of these are D. Mixtures of two or more aromatic epoxy resins can also be used. The hardener contains an amine component or a mixture of amine components used for epoxy thermoset applications.
Examples of the amine component include, but are not limited to liquid aromatic amines, aliphatic amines, cycloaliphatic amines, amidoamines, polyamides, and solid amines dissolved in a solvent. The amine component may also be an epoxy adduct of any of the amines but not limited to those described in the list above.
The amine component is generally present in the hardener composition in the range of from 25 weight percent to 90 weight percent, based on the total weight of the hardener composition. The amine component can be present in the hardener composition in the range of from 50 weight percent to 80 weight percent in another embodiment, and can be present in the range of from 40 weight percent to 60 weight percent in yet another embodiment.
The hardener composition further comprises a glycol ether component. In an embodiment, the glycol ether component is alkylene glycol phenyl ether. The alkylene glycol phenyl ether is represented by the following Formula I:. In an embodiment, the glycol ether component may contain an alkylene glycol phenyl ether, a dialkylene glycol phenyl ether, and a trialkylene glycol phenyl ether. The alkylene glycol phenyl ether can be selected from the group consisting of ethylene glycol phenyl ether and propylene glycol phenyl ether, the dialkylene glycol phenyl ether can be selected from diethylene glycol phenyl ether and dipropylene glycol phenyl ether, and the trialkylene glycol phenyl ether can be selected from the group consisting of triethylene glycol phenyl ether and tripropylene glycol phenyl ether.
In an embodiment, the glycol ether comprises a polyalkylene glycol phenyl ether with a number average molecular weight of from to daltons. In an embodiment, the glycol ether component can comprise from 10 weight percent to 70 weight percent alkylene glycol phenyl ether, from 25 weight percent to 80 weight percent dialkylene glycol phenyl ether, and from 5 weight percent to 20 weight percent trialkylene glycol phenyl ether.
In another embodiment, the alkylene glycol phenyl ether is present in an amount in the range of from 15 weight percent to 25 weight percent, the dialkylene glycol phenyl ether is present in an amount in the range of from 60 weight percent to 75 weight percent; and the trialkylene glycol phenyl ether is present in an amount in the range of from 5 weight percent to 20 weight percent.
In yet another embodiment, the alkylene glycol phenyl ether is present in an amount of 70 weight percent, the dialkylene glycol phenyl ether is present in an amount in the range of from 25 weight percent to 27 weight percent; and the trialkylene glycol phenyl ether is present in an amount in the range of from 3 weight percent to 5 weight percent.
The glycol ether component is generally present in the hardener composition in the range of from 10 weight percent to 75 weight percent, based on the total weight of the hardener composition.
The glycol ether component can be present in the range of from 20 weight percent to 60 weight percent in another embodiment, and is present in the range of from 40 weight percent to 60 weight percent in yet another embodiment.
The thermoset composition further contains a catalyst or a mixture of catalysts. Catalysts may include but are not limited to salicylic acid, bisphenol A, 2,4,6,-tris dimethylaminomethyl phenol DMPimidazole derivates, p-tolunesulfonic acid, methy p-toluenesulfonate, and phenol derivatives. The catalyst can be added to the thermoset formulation by adding it to the epoxy component, or by adding it to the hardener component, or by adding it directly to the thermoset composition. The catalyst is generally present in the thermoset composition in an amount in the range of from 0.
Any suitable method can be used to produce the hardener composition.